Tag Archives: Civil rights movement

Happy Birthday Rosa Parks!

birthday-black-history-rosa-parksJust in time to kick off Black History Month today marks what would have been Rosa Parks‘ 100th birthday. The “Mother of the Freedom Movement” continues to inspire generations of Americans who believe in equality. Arguably the most famous woman activist in American history, Parks’ legacy lives on along side legends of the Revered Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The Montgomery Bus Boycott was sparked by Parks’ refusal to obey an unjust law, and her subsequent arrest, trial and appeals lead to the Supreme Court decision upholding a federal district court ruling in the case that Alabama’s segregation laws were unlawful.

BlackHistoryRosaPark’s humble quote here that she was merely “tired of giving up” is inspiring, but overshadows the truth that she had been groomed for making history by her own family, her community, and civil rights leaders of the time. Indeed, other “test subjects” against segregation, like Irene Morgan, Claudette Colvin, Mary Louise Smith, and Aurelia Browder (the lead plaintiff in Browder v. Gayle which effectively ended segregation on public buses in Montgomery Alabama) had been considered as the face of the boycott. Parks was chosen because of her stellar history as an investigator for the NAACP of sexual assaults on black women, like Recy Taylor, her acceptable employment and family life, and because she was “above reproach.”

rosa parks stampIt is both heartening and saddening to learn that the Civil Rights Movement was sparked by a community outraged at the brutal sexual assault of one of its women; heartening because it is everyone’s duty to work together to create communities and a world that are safe for all people regardless of sex, race, age, ability or religion, and saddening because we are still fighting today to make our communities safe for all people. The fight against racism is inextricably linked to the fight against sexism, and the fight against homophobia, and the fight against ableism, etc. In the words of Dr. King “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

Rosa Parks landmarkAlthough Parks is the most famous woman activist of the Civil Rights Movement, many women had to come together to ignite the fight for equality, including Jo Ann Robinson, Coretta Scott King, Mary Fair Burks, Josephine Baker, Mary E. King, Daisy Bates, and the women of the Women’s Political Council. Although most history books focus on the male leaders of the movement, without these and other women who dedicated their lives to the fight for equality, many of the laws we now take for granted would never have been adopted. The everyday folks in Montgomery who participated in the bus boycott day in and day out for 381 days, who walked to work through rain and cold and sweltering heat were the ones who made the boycott a success. Without the cooperation of the community Rosa Parks’ determination would have been swallowed up by complacency and a resignation that the status quo would never change. It is your duty now, today, to honor Parks and other activists like her who have dedicated, and in some cases given, their lives in the fight for equality. Analyze, strategize and act to create equality. And do it with love.
Happy Birthday Rosa Parks: You are an inspiration to us all!

Rosa Parks arrest

 

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Day 4- Latina/Chicana Women’s Activism in the US

Like their black sisters, women of Spanish/Hispanic/Latina/Chicana/Tejana heritage in the United States grapple with the naming of their own identities, and in the past, faced overt racist violence in the form of segregation and lynching. While northern cities may not have had “White Only/Black Only” signs (usually because there were too few blacks) many businesses had signs that read “No dogs or Mexicans.”

Like their Native American sisters, Latinas have been robbed of their land, deprived of their language, and marginalized where they were once the majority. States from Florida to California have large Latino populations, due in large part to the fact that these states belonged to Spain and Mexico for many years, but Latinos are still routinely discriminated against in healthcare and education.

Like their Asian sisters, Latinas have struggled and continue to struggle with sweatshop labor practices, racist attitudes and immigration laws. Latina women earn the lowest income out of any other group, and face ridiculous obstacles to legal immigration to America.

Like their Middle Eastern sisters, Latinas in the United States are assigned an identity. Mexican on the West Coast y en la frontera or Cuban or Puerto Rican in Florida, any Spanish-speaker in the U.S. is assumed to be from one of these three places, with white Americans completely disregarding the rest of the Western Hemisphere. Latinas are also extremely racialized when they are (rarely) seen in the media and almost exclusively objectified as sex symbols. In fact, Selma Hayek was turned down for the role of El Salvadorian Alicia Nash in A Beautiful Mind because she was seen as too sexy, and the casting director thought it would be unrealistic for a Latina to be that intelligent (never mind that the film is based on a true story).

Despite the fact that the economy of the United States runs on the hard labor of ill-paid Latino immigrants, states like California have made bilingual education illegal, and Arizona is taking the lead on legalized racism.

Latinas have faced racism in what is now the United States since the 1840s, before much of the western territories even became states. As early as 1911 Mexican women, like Jovita Idar, in the United States were working towards equality with La Liga Feminil Mexicanista (the Mexican Women’s League).[1]

In the same year Puerto Rican feminist and socialist Luisa Capetillo wrote Mi opinión sobre las libertades, derechos y deberes de la mujer como compañera, madre y ser independiente, (My opinion about the freedoms, rights and responsibilities of woman as companion, mother and human being) in which she analyzed “the situation of women in society, focusing on what she viewed as the oppression and slavery of women and affirming that education is the key to freedom.”[2] She fought for universal suffrage and had an uncanny ability to “interweave the issues of the private world (such as the family, single motherhood, and women’s rights in general) with those of the public world (such as politics, wages, and education).”[3]

In 1915 the Plan de San Diego was drafted, it “called for a force of Mexican Americans, African Americans, and Japanese to liberate the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Colorado from the United States and create a free society comprised of people of color.”[4]

From then on Latinas have been active in the fight for social justice and equality in the United States.

Because Mexican Americans form the largest portion of the Latino population in the U.S, nearly 65 percent,[5] their activism is the most visible with groups such as LULAC, the League of United Latin American Citizens, forming in 1929.[6]

Although LULAC was formed by Mexican Americans today the organization fights for the advancement and rights of “all Hispanic nationality groups.” This trend is common throughout Latino organizations, most of which sprang from the Chicana/o (Chican@) rights movement or El Movimiento.

El Movimiento began in the 1960s as an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement in the 1940s. Mexican American veterans returning to the United States after WWII formed the American GI Forum (AGIF)[7] in 1948 to fight for medical benefits they were being denied because of their ethnicity. AGIF is still active today and has expanded their cause to serve all Hispanic veterans and fight for all civil rights.

In both LULAC and AGIF, women’s participation in auxiliary groups soon transformed the organizations themselves to fight for equality for all people. These two organizations were also actively involved in the landmark Supreme Court ruling in 1954 of Hernandez v. Texas, which extended equal protection under the 14th Amendment to all racial groups.

The Chican@ movement, though fraught with controversy, has been an important part of the fight for all people’s civil rights since the mid 20th century. The term Chicana, (sometimes Xicana) once used to degrade children of Mexican immigrants, is now a label of pride for many Mexican and other Latino Americans. Tejanas are women of Chicana heritage from the state of Texas.

“Almost from the very beginning of the Chicano Movimiento, Chicana activists and scholars criticized the conflation of revolutionary commitment with manliness or machismo….”[8]

Chicana feminists are largely responsible for the push for women’s visibility within El Movimiento; a clear example of this is the use of Chican@ to mean both Chicano men and Chicana women. Because in Spanish the male form of any adjective is assumed to be applicable to women, Chicana activists rejected this linguistic sexism and pushed for the use of Chicana/o to identify any group made up of Hispanic men and women. The @ symbol came to simplify the term.

Many organizations that originated in the 1960s Chican@ Rights Movimiento started out working for the rights of Mexicans in the United States but soon expanded their reach to all Latino Americans. MEChA is one such group.

Formed in 1969, the Movimiento Estidantil Chican@ de Aztlán is a student group that fights for the rights of all people of Aztlán (the Southwest United States that was annexed from Mexico during the Mexican-American War and was named in recognition of the fact that the Mexica and Aztec people were indigenous to this area) and strives “for a society free of imperialism, racism, sexism, and homophobia.”[9] Though the MEChA website urges political participation and education, mainstream, white America sometimes sees them as a militant group.

La Raza is another controversial term used by Latino Americans, meaning “The Race.” Within El Movimiento it is understood to be a term of endearment for Mexicans but is sometimes interpreted as racism against non-Latinos. Again, ideas, terms, and political goals that once applied specifically to Mexicans in the U.S. now apply to all Latinos in America.

Other important and active groups in the fight for civil rights from education to legal issues include the National Council of La Raza (NCLR),[10] the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF),[11] both founded in 1968, the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO)[12] formed in 1976, and the National Hispanic Institute (NHI),[13] established in 1979.

While the above organizations and others like the Mexican American Youth Organization (MAYO) created in 1967 and the Raza Unida Party (RUP) created in 1970[14] had women in their ranks, some, like the Chicana/Latina Foundation formed in 1977[15] and the Association of Chicana Activists (AChA) established in 1991,[16] were specifically formed by Chicanas to work for the needs and rights of Latina women within the United States. Both the Chicana/Latina Foundation and AChA were formed by college women in California who recognized the need to support other Latina women who may not have the same opportunities they had, while fighting against the racism and sexism of the educational system in the United States.

The work of Chicana feminists both within and without the university system has been key to cross-class activism. Much of the criticism faced by the Chican@ movimiento, especially by groups like the United Farm Workers of America (UFWA),[17] formed by Cesar Chavez, Larry Itliong, and Dolores Huerta,[18] related to the educated, middle-class position of many Chican@ activists. The UFWA remains a powerful working-class union and a strong bond between the Latino and Asian farming communities.

Chicanas have used many types of nonviolent action to realize their goals, from marches, rallies, strikes, boycotts and walk-outs to the highly successful “Day Without a Mexican” campaign and are learning just how much power they wield. All of the moderate and liberal Latino organizations in the United States have voiced their opposition to Arizona’s new discriminatory laws, with some supporting a full boycott of the state.

Currently the UFWA is heading the “Take Our Jobs” campaign,[19] a play on the complaint by white Americans that Latinos are taking all of the available employment in the U.S. They are encouraging unemployed white Americans to take to the fields and sustain agriculture in the same way the Latino community does.

The UFWA is unique among Chican@ organizations in that it clearly states its commitment to nonviolence and taking disciplined action as one of its founding principles. Other organizations do not promote violence but are not as explicit in their call for nonviolence as was Cesar Chavez who “had very little patience for expressions of machismo among his activists.”[20] Chavez’s commitment to nonviolence and equality made the struggles against classism, racism, and sexism more legitimate to the mainstream Chican@ Movimiento despite the fact that Chavez was so radical in his fight against classism and racism that he disassociated himself from El Movimiento.

“In his view, the idea Chicano/a identity promotes does not operate to ease racial prejudice in society but, rather, reinforces the patterns of thinking that underlie it. He takes the idea of Chicano/a identity promoted by such nationalism to be an oppositional identity. That is, Chicano/a identity derives its content primarily by defining itself against, or by rejecting, white mainstream culture.”[21]

By openly combating the dichotomous way Chican@s and other working-class people see race, Chavez and the UFWA helped open the door to fighting against other social constructions that promote bigotry.

Chicana activists and feminists have had much to fight for and against recently, including forced sterilization due to racism and linguistic discrimination. In 1983 the director of the National Latina Health Organization (now the National Latina Health Network, NLHN) Luz Alvarez Martinez, decided “to create a health information service for Hispanic women” because economically disadvantaged Spanish-speaking women were not being offered any other form of birth control besides sterilization.[22] She was also one of the first women in the Chican@ community to raise the need for services in Spanish in women’s shelters.

Journalist Yolanda H. Alvaro also combats racism, classism and sexism against Latina women within the fight for the rights of the disabled. She understands that “the women’s movement is a great training ground for Hispanic women in organizing and… a lot of women’s concerns are Hispanic concerns.”[23]

2010 was a historic year for addressing women’s concerns and Hispanic concerns in the United States as the first Latina woman was appointed to the Supreme Court, Justice Sonia Sotomayor.

Like all their American sisters, Latinas have been subjected to sexism and misogyny under the hierarchy of patriarchy in the United States and have actively and strategically worked against sexism, racism, homophobia, and classism to create a more just society.


[1] Palomo Acosta, Teresa and Ruthe Winegarten. 2003. Las Tejanas: 300 Years of History. University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas.

[2] Notable Hispanic American Women Eds. Diane Telgen and Jim Kamp. Gale Research Inc. Detroit, Michigan. 1993.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Palomo Acosta, Teresa and Ruthe Winegarten. 2003. Las Tejanas: 300 Years of History. University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas.

[5] Pew Hispanic Center. 2007. “Table 5. Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007.” Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2007.  Pew Hispanic Center: Washington, D.C. 28 June 2010 http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table-5.pdf

[8] Orosco, José-Antonio. 2008. Cesar Chavez and the Common Sense of Nonviolence. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque.

[14] Palomo Acosta and Winegarten, 2003.

[18] See http://www.chicanas.com/chingonas.html for a list of other Chicana activists who have left their marks on the civil rights movimiento.

[20] Orosco, 2008.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Notable Hispanic American Women Eds. Diane Telgen and Jim Kamp. Gale Research Inc. Detroit, Michigan. 1993.

[23] Telgen and Kamp, 1993.


Day 3- Black Women’s Activism in the US

[Four African American women seated on steps o...

Image by The Library of Congress via Flickr

The descendants of black slaves in the United States were deprived of their histories from the moment they were kidnapped. Given white names and forbidden from using their own languages or practicing their own religions, slaves were also often forbidden from learning how to read or write English.

While black history on the American continent has been preserved through oral history to the effect that black women today do have black heroines with whom they can identify, the racism black people face is an ingrained part of much of American culture.

“Racial prejudice against African Americans becomes part of the Americanization process for immigrants, and prejudice against immigrants becomes part of the ongoing struggle for equity in employment and education for African Americans, especially when it appears that immigrants are exploiting black communities.”[1]

Prejudice against black Americans is the deepest and most persistent racism alive today in the United States. Although the situation for blacks in the U.S. has improved drastically over the course of American history, especially in the past forty years, black people are still systematically oppressed and targeted for failure by the racist patriarchal system of capitalism in the United States.

With highly disproportionate numbers of black men imprisoned, the situation black women face as a consequence is unique. The stereotype of the strong, outspoken black woman has emerged in part because black women have had to be strong and outspoken, as heads of household, so that they can care for their families. The other side to this stereotype is the black Mammy, caricatured prominently as The Black Woman in U.S. cinema and cartoons for decades.

Much of the critique of white, mainstream feminism during the Second Wave came from black women pointing out that they had been working outside the home, out of necessity, for centuries.

The failure of white, middle-class feminists to consider any other race or class and their assumption that their own reality was universal put a deep rift in the Women’s Liberation movement but “other activists–notably feminists and lesbians of color–[lead] socially marginalized lives [and] demanded rigor in analyzing political tactics. These women, initially separate from the more mainstream elements of nonviolent action and feminism, represented a pool of sophisticated but down-to-earth clarity into which other women activists eventually dipped.”[2]

Black women were fighting for their rights even before the United States declared independence. Jenny Slew and Elizabeth Freeman both sued for their freedom from slavery in the state of Massachusetts, in 1765 and 1780 respectively, and won, but “As the future would prove again and again, legal action could take the fight for freedom only so far.”[3]

Slavery would continue to thrive in the United States until the Civil War and black men would still not Constitutionally have the right to vote until 1870. Women would not have the right to vote until 1920.

Even with these legal rights finally added to the Constitution, racist legislation like poll taxes and Jim Crow laws made sure that black men and women were highly discouraged or prevented from voting until the late 20th century.

While “the Civil Rights Act of 1875… stated that there could be no discrimination in public places or on means of transportation within the United States,”[4] the Supreme Court disagreed and in 1913 ruled that this act was unconstitutional. From the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson until the 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education “separate but equal” was not only accepted but widely enforced.

Additionally, interracial marriage was illegal in some states until 1967.[5]

Despite America’s long history of bigotry, black women have always been a visible and vital force for equality. Sojourner Truth, Harriett TubmanIda B. Wells, Ella Baker, Rosa Parks, Toni Morrison, Audre Lorde, Alice Walker, bell hooks, Oprah Winfrey and Michelle Obama are black women whose fame and notoriety span the centuries of American history and who act as role models to inspire all young women to greatness today. From actively defying unjust slavery laws and participating in the abolitionist and suffragist movements, to writing, organizing and protesting for civil rights and feminism, to representing the United States on an international scale, these women have dedicated themselves to the fight for justice and equality.

In 1831 black women formed the Colored Females’ Free Produce Society and “There were strikes among black women field workers as early as 1862.” The purpose of the Society “was to encourage the boycotting of goods produced by slave labor. It was part of a larger Free Produce movement, and it provided the public with the opportunity to buy products, such as cotton and sugar, that had been produced entirely by nonslave workers.”[6]

From then on African American women fought not only for their own rights, but also for the principles of freedom and democracy.

“When the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, saying that no citizen could be denied the rights guaranteed by the Constitution, black and white suffragists challenged the unwritten assumption that all citizens were male.”[7]

After slavery was abolished and all American citizens earned the right to vote, black women continued to participate in organizations promoting gender equality and fair labor practices. In the early 20th century black women were active in the Harlem Renaissance and responsible for the popularity of the Blues.

The participation of black women in strategic nonviolent action blossomed though, with the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s. “For a number of reasons–including sexism, the need to protect their jobs, and deference to a long tradition of community leadership by black ministers–female leaders [were] less visible and rarely if ever served as speakers at mass meetings or press conferences.”[8]

While few women represented the Civil Rights movement to the public, the strides that were made towards equality would not have been possible without the widespread participation of black women. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, publicly lead by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., owed its success to the “several thousand working-class women who, in the face of intimidation and threats, rode in the car pools or walked as far as twelve miles a day, even in the rain.”[9] In fact, if it were not for Jo Ann Robinson’s stellar organization and community outreach techniques, the boycott probably would not have had the impact it did on the economy of Montgomery.[10]

After the success of the Civil Rights movement black women recognized the backseat their needs had taken to those of men and joined in the Second Wave of the Women’s Movement even though black publications in the early seventies “would trivialize” the feminist movement.

“Black men did not want to lose Black women as allies. And the white power structure did not want to see all women bond across racial lines because they knew that would be an unstoppable combination.”[11]

Today, black women are an integral part of the economy of the entire nation and participate in all kinds of organizations fighting for equality from the National Organization for Women (NOW) to the Human Rights Campaign to Not Dead Yet and Disabled Veterans of America.

Other organizations that are more specifically focused on advancing black women include the National Organization for African-American Women (NOAW), the National Council of Negro Women, Inc. (NCNW), The National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Black Career Women (BCW) and the Association of Black Women Historians (ABWH).

The names of these organizations alone show the painful history of black self-identification in the United States; Negro, Colored, Black, or African American, women who identify as descendants of African slaves still have to fight for recognition of their identities, both as black, and as women.


[1] Karim, 2009.

[2] Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women’s Sufferage Eds. Roger S. Powers and William B. Vogele. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York. 1997.

[3] Encyclopedia of Black Women in America: Social Activism Ed. Darlene Clark Hine Facts on File, Inc. New York. 1997.

[4] Facts on File Encyclopedia of Black Women in America: Social Activism Ed. Darlene Clark Hine Facts on File, Inc. New York. 1997.

[5] See Supreme Court Case Loving v. Virginia

[6] Facts on File Encyclopedia of Black Women in America: Social Activism Ed. Darlene Clark Hine Facts on File, Inc. New York. 1997.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Hine, 1997.

[10] King, Mary Elizabeth. Lecture.

[11] Smith, Barbara. “Across the Kitchen Table A Sister-to-Sister Dialogue,” in Moraga and Anzaldúa, 1981.


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